The following are the different types of the measurement for the blood pressure and the machines used. .
Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which historically used the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure. In the United States and the United Kingdom, BP values are reported in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), though aneroid and electronic devices do not use mercury. BP values are reported in SI units (MPa) in France.
For each heartbeat, BP varies between systolic and diastolic pressures. Systolic pressure is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting. Diastolic pressure is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood. An example of normal measured values for a resting, healthy adult human is 120 mmHg systolic and 80 mmHg diastolic (written as 120/80 mmHg, and spoken [in the US] as “one-twenty over eighty”).
Arterial pressures are usually measured non-invasively, without penetrating skin or artery. Measuring pressure invasively, by penetrating the arterial wall to take the measurement, is much less common and usually restricted to a hospital setting.
The noninvasive auscultatory and oscillometric measurements are simpler and quicker than invasive measurements, require less expertise, have virtually no complications, are less unpleasant and less painful for the patient. However, noninvasive methods may yield somewhat lower accuracy and small systematic differences in numerical results. Noninvasive measurement methods are more commonly used for routine examinations and monitoring.
A minimum systolic value can be roughly estimated by palpation, most often used in emergency situations. Historically, students have been taught that palpation of a radial pulse indicates a minimum BP of 80 mmHg, a femoral pulse indicates at least 70 mmHg, and a carotid pulse indicates a minimum of 60 mmHg. However, at least one study indicated that this method often overestimates patients’ systolic BP.
The auscultatory method (from the Latin word for “listening”) uses a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer. This comprises an inflatable (Riva-Rocci) cuff placed around the upper arm at roughly the same vertical height as the heart, attached to a mercury or aneroid manometer. The mercury manometer, considered the gold standard, measures the height of a column of mercury, giving an absolute result without need for calibration and, consequently, not subject to the errors and drift of calibration which affect other methods. The use of mercury manometers is often required in clinical trials and for the clinical measurement of hypertension in high-risk patients, such as pregnant women.
The oscillometric method was first demonstrated in 1876 and involves the observation of oscillations in the sphygmomanometer cuff pressure which are caused by the oscillations of blood flow, i.e., the pulse. The electronic version of this method is sometimes used in long-term measurements and general practice. It uses a sphygmomanometer cuff, like the auscultatory method, but with an electronic pressure sensor (transducer) to observe cuff pressure oscillations, electronics to automatically interpret them, and automatic inflation and deflation of the cuff. The pressure sensor should be calibrated periodically to maintain accuracy.
Ambulatory blood pressure devices that take readings every half hour throughout the day and night have been used for identifying and mitigating measurement problems like white-coat hypertension. Except for sleep, home monitoring could be used for these purposes instead of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Home monitoring may be used to improve hypertension management and to monitor the effects of lifestyle changes and medication related to BP. Compared to ambulatory blood pressure measurements, home monitoring has been found to be an effective and lower cost alternative.
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